Mother Earth, founded in 1907 and co-edited by Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, was an anarchist American journal. In 1917, it began to publish its opposition to the United States’ entry into World War I and to disobey government laws on registration for the military draft. On June 15, 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act, which criminalized any interference in U.S. foreign policy, up to and including espionage. The Act authorized prison terms of up to 20 years for anyone who resisted the U.S. government. Goldman and Berkman (who also edited The Blast) continued to advocate against conscription, and eventually they were deported to their country of origin, Russia. The Mother Earth offices were searched and subscription lists seized. The magazine, which espoused women’s emancipation, sexual freedom and birth control, ceased publication, although for a brief time it published the Bulletin below. This was one of many times that censorship took hold in the United States.
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