Brave New World Revisited Again

Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) is one of my favorite authors as much for his brilliant dystopia Brave New World (1932) as his subsequent Brave New World Revisited (1958) (which you can read in its entirety here). He was a master of the quotable quote, like this:

An intellectual is a person who’s found one thing that’s more interesting than sex.

and this:

Men do not learn much from the lessons of history and that is the most important of all the lessons of history.

His Brave New World Revisited adds a page to Marshall McLuhan, so to speak, since it addresses many of the pitfalls, pratfalls and slow-burns of modern media manipulation. From brainwashing and chemical addiction to the devious selling arts to the black science of propaganda. If you don’t have the time to read the book, here is one of Huxley’s most interesting portions on propaganda, literacy and capitalism. Over fifty years old, it still rings some bells.

In regard to propaganda the early advocates of uni­versal literacy and a free press envisaged only two possibilities: the propaganda might be true, or it might be false. They did not foresee what in fact has happened, above all in our Western capitalist democra­cies — the development of a vast mass communications industry, concerned in the main neither with the true nor the false, but with the unreal, the more or less totally irrelevant. In a word, they failed to take into account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions.

In the past most people never got a chance of fully satisfying this appetite. They might long for distrac­tions, but the distractions were not provided. Christmas came but once a year, feasts were “solemn and rare,” there were few readers and very little to read, and the nearest approach to a neighborhood movie theater was the parish church, where the per­formances, though frequent, were somewhat monoto­nous. For conditions even remotely comparable to those now prevailing we must return to imperial Rome, where the populace was kept in good humor by frequent, gratuitous doses of many kinds of entertain­ment — from poetical dramas to gladiatorial fights, from recitations of Virgil to all-out boxing, from con­certs to military reviews and public executions. But even in Rome there was nothing like the non-stop dis­traction now provided by newspapers and magazines, by radio, television and the cinema. In Brave New World non-stop distractions of the most fascinating nature (the feelies, orgy-porgy, centrifugal bumble-puppy) are deliberately used as instruments of policy, for the purpose of preventing people from paying too much attention to the realities of the social and polit­ical situation. The other world of religion is different from the other world of entertainment; but they resem­ble one another in being most decidedly “not of this world.” Both are distractions and, if lived in too con­tinuously, both can become, in Marx’s phrase, “the opium of the people” and so a threat to freedom. Only the vigilant can maintain their liberties, and only those who are constantly and intelligently on the spot can hope to govern themselves effectively by demo­cratic procedures. A society, most of whose members spend a great part of their time, not on the spot, not here and now and in the calculable future, but some­where else, in the irrelevant other worlds of sport and soap opera, of mythology and metaphysical fantasy, will find it hard to resist the encroachments of those who would manipulate and control it.

In their propaganda today’s dictators rely for the most part on repetition, suppression and rationaliza­tion — the repetition of catchwords which they wish to be accepted as true, the suppression of facts which they wish to be ignored, the arousal and rationaliza­tion of passions which may be used in the interests of the Party or the State. As the art and science of manip­ulation come to be better understood, the dictators of the future will doubtless learn to combine these tech­niques with the non-stop distractions which, in the West, are now threatening to drown in a sea of irrele­vance the rational propaganda essential to the mainten­ance of individual liberty and the survival of demo­cratic institutions.


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3 COMMENTS

  1. In a era of opulence (of words, sounds and images) and of a permanent search for personal satisfaction, Huxley’s words, coming to us in a clear, not troubled voice, are prophetic and warning like a bell announcing danger.
    Thank you for sharing such an insightful text.

  2. Absolutely fascinating. It’s frightening how relevant it is in today’s world… Thank you for your wonderful posts and musings, they always inspire me.