Typography Terms 101: Everything You Need to Know

TypographyBarbs, beaks, brackets, bowls.

Baffled by typography terms? You’re not alone.

One of the most common questions we field at Print is what the heck typography’s various terms all mean. We called in Denise Bosler, author of Mastering Type: The Essential Guide to Typography for Print and Web Design, to serve as our official translator. Here, Denise shares a selection from her book breaking it all down:

 

apex: the top point of a letterform where two angled strokes meet

 

arm: a secondary stroke that extends horizontally or diagonally from a stroke at the top and does not connect to another stroke

 

ascender: the part of a lowercase letter that extends above the x-height

 

barb: the terminal for a curved capital serif letter

 

baseline: the horizon on which letters sit

 

beak: the terminal for a straight capital serif letter found on the horizontal strokes

 

body copy: the text that makes up a paragraph—it reads best when set between 8 and 11 points in size

 

bowl: a curved stroke that connects to either a vertical stroke or to itself

 

bracket: a piece that connects a stroke to a serif

 

closure: the principle that states the eye will complete a path of an object

 

compound modules: formed by combining modules horizontally, vertically or both

 

continuity: once the eye begins to follow something it will continue traveling in that direction until it encounters another object

 

counter: any enclosed space in a letterform. If the space is completely enclosed, it is referred to as a closed counter. An open counter occurs when a curved, straight or angled stroke does not connect to another stroke but still creates an enclosed space.

 

cross bar: a stroke that horizontally connects two strokes

 

cross stroke: a stroke that crosses over another stroke but doesn’t connect on either side

 

crotch: inside of a vertex

 

descender: the part of a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline

 

drop cap: a larger letter at the beginning of a paragraph that drops down into the lines of text below it

 

ear: the small extension that protrudes up and out from the top of a stroke or bowl and is often teardrop-shaped or rounded

 

em dash: a long dash that indicates either a change of thought or emphasis

 

en dash: a medium-length dash indicating a range of items or the passage of time

 

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eye: the closed counter of a lowercase e

 

font family: all the variations in weight, width and angle of a typeface

 

graphic text: text formatted to output as an image file

 

grid: a matrix of vertical and horizontal lines that come together to create a two-dimensional structure

 

hanging cap: a letter at the beginning of a paragraph that literally hangs outside the edge of the paragraph

 

headline: line of text that stands out from the rest of the page and sets the tone for the document, generally set at 18–24 points or larger in size

 

hyphen: a short dash used for words that break at the end of a sentence and for compound words

 

hyphenation: the splitting of a word at the end of a line and continuing onto the next line

 

indent: a small space before the first word of a paragraph equal to an em space, the space occupied by a capital M

 

inherent web text: text programmed to automatically resize to match the resolution and viewer’s browser preferences

 

italic: angled version of letterforms that are redrawn, but the letters remain consistent with the essence of the overall look

 

kerning: a manual adjustment of the space between two letters

 

leading: horizontal white space between lines of text

 

leg: a secondary stroke that extends horizontally or diagonally from the bottom of a letter

 

legibility: the ability to discern all parts of a character and all the styles within a font family

 

ligature: two or more letters that touch

 

lining numbers: numbers that line up along the cap height

 

link: the small piece which connects the upper bowl with the lower loop of a traditionally shaped lowercase g, also known as two-story g

 

live text: searchable and editable text

 

loop: the lower bowl of a traditionally shaped lowercase g, also known as two-story g

 

monogram: a design that contains overlapping letters, usually the first, middle and last initials of a person’s name

 

oblique: angling letterforms with little or no change to the letterfoms

 

old style numbers: numbers that have varying heights with ascenders and descenders when set along the baseline

 

optical alignment: aligning letters that are curved or pointed above the cap height, below the baseline or outside vertical alignment to allow them to align optically

 

point: measuring system used for type size—there are 72 points in an inch

 

prime marks: symbols that denote inch and feet, also known as dumb quotes

 

readability: the level of a word’s comprehension based upon font choice, size, style, kerning, tracking, case and location on the page

 

sans serif: typeface with no extra structural extensions coming from the horizontal and vertical strokes. Sans is a French word meaning “without”—hence the phrase sans serif means “without serif”

 

serif: small structural extensions that are at the end of a letter’s horizontal and vertical strokes. Serifs come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Serif also refers to the category name of a font that has serif extensions.

 

shoulder: a short rounded stroke that connects two vertical strokes or a vertical stroke and a terminal

 

smart quotes: quotation marks that curl or angle toward the text, also called curly quotes

 

spine: the curved stroke through the middle of an s

 

spur: a small pointed extension typically coming off the top or bottom of a vertical stroke that connects to a rounded stroke—oftentimes on a serif lowercase letter

 

standup cap: a letter at the beginning of a paragraph that is several times larger than that of the surrounding text but shares the same baseline as the body copy

 

stress: the axis created by the thick and thin stroke contrast of a letter

 

stroke: a straight or curved line that creates the principal part of a letter

 

subhead: brief line of text that divides the body copy into sections between headlines and body copy

 

swash: the extra flourish that accompanies many script and blackletter style typefaces

 

tail: the stroke that crosses the lower half of an uppercase Q

 

terminal: a stroke ending without a serif

 

tracking: the spacing between all of the letters in a word or sentence

 

vertex: the bottom point of a letterform where two angled strokes meet

 

weight: varying degrees of thickness built into a font with a standard range being light, roman (also called book), medium, bold, heavy and black

 

whispering headline: a headline that fails to attract the attention of the viewer because it is too small, blends in with the text to which it is assigned or is of insufficient boldness or color contrast

 

x-height: the center area of the baseline and cap height, measured against the height of the lowercase x

 

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